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Volume 1, Issue 1
July - September 2015


Images From Advanced Himawari Imager Now Available at CIMSS and CIRA

Himawari-8 true color image using the CIRA Hybrid Atmospherically Corrected method, as it appears on the RAMMB/CIRA real time webpage, from 10-2-2015 at 0300 UTC

Himawari-8 true color image using the CIRA Hybrid Atmospherically Corrected method, as it appears on the RAMMB/CIRA real time webpage, from 10-2-2015 at 0300 UTC
(click to enlarge)

STAR began receiving AHI data from the JMA Cloud Service routinely since the end of March 2015. The Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) is nearly identical to ABI except for two spectral bands, and this provides a unique opportunity for the AWG to validate their algorithms. This data is also vital for NWS operational needs in the Pacific (e.g.). RAMMB/CIRA and ASPB/CIMSS have started production and distribution of imagery. Software was written to read the raw data in real time, process it, and output imagery which is served here http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/ramsdis/online/himawari-8.asp and via the CIMSS Real Earth page here https://realearth.ssec.wisc.edu/. Multiple requests have been received from both Pacific Region NWS personnel and people and agencies internationally asking that sectors be added over thier region of interest; these have been accommodated at the RAMMB link above. In addition, RAMMB/CIRA is sending out some of the bands in real time via the LDM for use by the NWS Ocean Prediction Center and Aviation Weather Center. To the right is an example of a full disk true color image based on CIRA's Hybrid Atmospherically Corrected method.

First Article on Decadal Changes in Ocean Acidification

The climatological distributions of aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) in surface waters of the global oceans (black dots show the sampling stations)

The climatological distributions of aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) in surface waters of the global oceans (black dots show the sampling stations)
(click to enlarge)

New research conducted by NOAA and Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites at the University of Maryland scientists identify areas of global ocean most vulnerable to ocean acidification. A paper published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles presents, for the first time, a climatological distribution of aragonite saturation state in surface and subsurface waters of the global oceans. Aragonite saturation state is used to track ocean acidification because it is a function of carbonate ion concentration. The figure below shows the climatological distributions of aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) in surface waters of the global oceans (black dots show the sampling stations).

The authors discuss the mechanisms controlling the aragonite saturation state distribution and show seasonal and decadal changes:

Jiang, L.-Q., R. A. Feely, B. R. Carter, D. J. Greeley, D. K. Gledhill, K. M. Arzayus, 2015: Climatological distribution of aragonite saturation state in the global oceans, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29, DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005198.

The NOAA press release for this article can be found at: http://research.noaa.gov/News/NewsArchive/LatestNews/TabId/684/ArtMID/1768/ArticleID/11386/NOAA-led-research-identifies-areas-of-global-ocean-most-vulnerable-to-ocean-acidification.aspx?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=CWG_1016

Importance: Analysis of ocean acidification data promotes NOAA's mission to conserve and manage marine ecosystems. POC: L.-Q. Jiang

Improved Precipitation Retrieval from Satellites

Geospatial distribution of the estimated F17 SSMIS observed rain rate in 2013 summer season (June, July, and August)  at 1 degree grid resolution.

Geospatial distribution of the estimated F17 SSMIS observed rain rate in 2013 summer season (June, July, and August) at 1 degree grid resolution.
(click to enlarge)

CICS-MD (Y. You, N-Y. Wang) and SCSB (R. Ferraro) Scientists developed a prototype precipitation retrieval algorithm over land by utilizing 4 year National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (NMQ) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMI/S) coincident data sets. One of the unique features of this algorithm is that it uses other factors like surface type, surface temperature, land elevation, and ice layer thickness to split the single database into many smaller but more homogeneous databases, in which both the surface condition and precipitation vertical structure are similar. This approach significantly improved precipitation detection and retrieval over our previous approach and without using surface screening It is found that the probability of detection (POD) increases about 8% and 12% by using stratified databases for rainfall and snowfall detection, respectively. In addition, by considering the relative humidity at lower troposphere and the vertical velocity at 700 hPa in the precipitation detection process, the POD for snowfall detection is further increased by 20.4% from 56.0% to 76.4%. The outcome of this algorithm may be exploited by NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) team.

Details of this technique have been published in the Journal of Geophysical Research:

You, Y., N.-Y. Wang, and R. Ferraro (2015), A prototype precipitation retrieval algorithm over land using passive microwave observations stratified by surface condition and precipitation vertical structure, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 5295-5315, DOI: 10.1002/2014JD022534.

New & Experimental Tropical Cyclone (TC) surface wind analysis product
from CIRA and the Regional and Mesoscale Meteorology Branch on the web

Aircraft-based Tropical Cyclone Surface Wind Analysis of Hurricane Joaquin

Aircraft-based Tropical Cyclone Surface Wind Analysis of Hurricane Joaquin
(click to enlarge)

Since the mid-1990's aircraft reconnaissance data has been available in real-time at the National Hurricane Center and starting in 2009 to the meteorological community. But these data has been under utilized in operations and public decision making. To provide improved used of such data, a relatively simple and automated surface wind estimate method has been created. These analyses provide location of many important aspects of the tropical cyclone vortex including the location (radius and azimuth) of the maximum winds, the radii, and extent of the 22.5-kt, 34- kt, 50-kt, and 64-kt wind radii. This information is vital to forecasters and decision makers for wave forecasting, public pre-storm preparations, DOD site sortie/evacuation decisions, and hurricane preparations.

An experimental aircraft-based surface wind analysis that blends the operational MTCSWA winds and real-time aircraft reconnaissance data collected over a 6-hour period of time is now available on the TC- RealTime web page. This product, high resolution (top) and lower- resolution (middle), seeks to create a real-time and fully automated surface wind analysis system by combining the existing satellite-based six-hourly multi-platform tropical cyclone surface wind analysis (MTCSWA operational version) and aircraft reconnaissance data. This product is the result of a two-year Joint Hurricane Testbed project, which is being considered for operational transition at NHC. A full description of the product is provided at http://rammb.cira.colostate.edu/products/tc_realtime/about.asp#AIRCTCWA.

STAR Scientists from the Advanced Satellite Products Branch Win the 2015 Best Scientific Paper Award

This image shows MODIS-AQUA satellite products for 27 April 2011 over the southeast US, Central America and the Gulf of Mexico (GoM)

This image shows MODIS-AQUA satellite products for 27 April 2011 over the southeast US, Central America and the Gulf of Mexico (GoM)
(click to enlarge)

Brad Pierce and Andy Heidinger from ASPB were co-authors on the "Best Scientific Paper" award at the 2015 STAR Awards ceremony that was held at NCWCP on July 30. The paper, "Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S" was published in the American Geophysical Union's Geophysical Research Letters, and was co-authored by scientists from the University of Iowa (lead author), STAR/CoRP/ASPB, CIMSS (J. Otkin, T. Schaack), and NASA Goddard and Ames Space Centers. This high impact scientific paper makes connections between U.S. tornadic occurrence and severity to the amount of smoke that is in the atmosphere during convective outbreaks. The STAR awards are determined through peer nominations within the organization - federal, contractor and university researchers - who submit nominations through an annual process. The applications are then evaluated by a committee of representatives from each division of STAR, as well as the STAR director. One individual and one group "best paper" award are presented. This paper was selected out of 10 nominations that were received.

The article by Saide et al. (2015) shows that the increase in aerosol loads in the GoM is produced by fires in Central America, and this smoke is further transported to the southeast US where it can interact with clouds and radiation producing environmental conditions more favorable to significant tornado occurrence for the historical outbreak on 27 April 2011. Satellite L1B (true color image), AOD, and fire detection retrievals obtained from the NASA Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS); Tornado reports obtained from the NOAA Storm Prediction Center (SPC); imagery courtesy of Brad Pierce NOAA Satellite and Information Service (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR).

In the image at right, tornado tracks are depicted with red solid lines, thickness indicates the magnitude of the tornado reports (thickest=5, thinnest=1) for the period from April 26-28, 2011. The background is a true color image of the surface, clouds, and smoke, with yellow markers indicating fire detections and an iridescent overlay showing aerosol optical depth (AOD). Red, green and purple colors show high (1.0), medium (0.6) and low (0.1) AOD values.

Saide, P. E., S. N. Spak, R. B. Pierce, J. A. Otkin, T. K. Schaack, A. K. Heidinger, A. M. da Silva, M. Kacenelenbogen, J. Redemann, and G. R. Carmichael (2015), Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S., Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 956-965, DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062826.

http://news.agu.org/press-release/researchers-link-smoke-from-fires-to-tornado-intensity/

CIRA Layered Water Vapor Used in National Center Discussions on Hurricanes Joaquin and Marty

Four-panel blended layer precipitable water (LPW) merged at 2100 UTC 29 Sep 2015.

Four-panel blended layer precipitable water (LPW) merged at 2100 UTC 29 Sep 2015.
(click to enlarge)

Forecasters have long used precipitable water products to aid forecasting of heavy precipitation and flooding, especially where large tropical moisture plumes are expected to impact land. Two of the most common products used in forecast applications are GOES water vapor imagery, which provides a proxy for mid- to upper-level water vapor, and total precipitable water products from polar orbiting microwave sensors, which allow the detection of total column water vapor in all weather scenes. A deficiency of these products is that they contain few details about the vertical distribution of the water vapor.

To overcome these shortcomings a three-hourly layered precipitable water (and relative humidity) product has been developed at CIRA and is distributed by SpORT to NWS and NESDIS forecast centers. The product is a blended product using both the microwave integrated retrieval system (MIRS), which operates on several satellites (NOAA-18, -19, Metop-A, -B, and SNPP) and soundings based on retrievals from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) from the NASA Aqua satellite. The product consists of four pressure layers and is based on the blending and integration of the blended MIRS and AIRS moisture and temperature soundings. These products were used in the NWS Weather Prediction Center Discussion of Hurricanes Joaquin and Marty. An example of the product and excerpt from a WPC mesoscale precipitation discussion on moisture and flooding ahead of Hurricane Joaquin is shown in the Figure below.

The image at right shows a four-panel blended layer precipitable water (LPW) depiction merged at 2100 UTC 29 Sep 2015. Tropical Storm Joaquin is indicated. Black areas are either missing due to topography at the surface - 850 mb layer, or not retrieved due to heavy rain. An excerpt from a NOAA WPC mesoscale precipitation discussion on flooding indicates the value of the CIRA blended LPW products.

NWS Product Example

MESOSCALE PRECIPITATION DISCUSSION 0530 NWS WEATHER PREDICTION CENTER COLLEGE PARK MD 1016 AM EDT TUE SEP 29 2015

AREAS AFFECTED...SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA CONCERNING...HEAVY RAINFALL...FLASH FLOODING LIKELY

FORCING FROM THE SHORTWAVE IN GA AND A GENERALLY DIVERGENT PATTERNALOFT IS HELPING FORCE ASCENT ON THE LARGE SCALE...WITH 20-30 KTS OF LOW LEVEL UPSLOPE FLOW AIDING IN LIFT. LAYERED PRECIPITABLE WATER PRODUCTS SHOW AN IMPRESSIVE COMBINATION OF FACTORSCONTRIBUTING TO THE NEAR RECORD PRECIPITABLE WATER VALUES ACROSS THIS REGION. A CONNECTION TO THE PACIFIC AND TROPICAL STORM MARTY CAN BE SEEN IN THE MID/UPPER LEVELS...WITH A DEEP LAYER CONNECTION TO THE GULF OF MEXICO AND ALSO TROPICAL STORM JOAQUIN IN THE ATLANTIC. THIS IS ALL RESULTING IN A VERY EFFICIENT ATMOSPHERE FOR HEAVY RAIN RATES. THE ONE THING LACKING IS INSTABILITY...BUT AT AND COLDER CLOUD TOPS...

A full description of the methodology is found in Forsythe et al (2015):

Forsythe, J. M., S. Q. Kidder, K. K. Fuell, A. LeRoy, G. J. Jedlovec, and A. S. Jones, 2015: A multisensor, blended, layered water vapor product for weather analysis and forecasting. J. Operational Meteor., 3 (5), 41-58. DOI: 10.15191/nwajom.2015.0305

Demonstrating the Use of Lightning Data in Severe Storm Tracking

Twitter snapshot of the Washington Post "Capital Weather Gang" tweet of the animation lightning flash density as measured by the DCLMA.

Twitter snapshot of the Washington Post "Capital Weather Gang" tweet of the animation lightning flash density as measured by the DCLMA.
(click to enlarge)

As we prepare for the launch of GOES-R which will fly the first operational Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) (http://www.goes-r.gov/spacesegment/glm.html), scientists at the Satellite Climate Studies Branch (SCSB) and the Cooperative Institute for Climate Studies (CICS) at the University of Maryland have been experimenting with ground based Washington, DC Lightning Mapping Array (DCLMA) data to (http://lightning.nsstc.nasa.gov/lma/dclma/). Scott Rudlosky from SCSB is STAR's Lightning Subject Matter Expert and is our focal point for GOES-R GLM activities. The DCLMA is part of the GOES-R GLM validation activity that is being led by scientists at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. However, we are learning quite a bit about lightning from these ground networks as well.

In the early morning hours of July 1, 2015, a huge electrical storm passed over Maryland and Washington, DC. It was described in the Washington Post as "the most violent and complex storm since the June 2012 derecho...." CICS-MD Scientist Patrick Meyers quickly put together a looped animation of lightning flash density as measured by the DCLMA and posted it early the next morning. It was picked up by the Washington Post "Capital Weather Gang" and later sent out on their twitter feed (https://twitter.com/capitalweather/status/616263640740691968). The image is a snapshot of the animation as seen from Twitter. Working with student summer interns, scientists are also using the DCLMA to diagnose reported lightning hits in the region to see the viability of the network.

 

CoRP Science Symposium

Attendees of the 11th Annual NOAA/NESDIS CoRP Science Symposium

Attendees of the 11th Annual NOAA/NESDIS CoRP Science Symposium
(click to enlarge)

The 11th Annual NOAA/NESDIS CoRP Science Symposium was held on September 16 and 17 at the University of Maryland Conference Center. This year's symposium was hosted by CICS Executive Director Fernando Miralles-Wilhelm and CICS-MD Director Hugo Berbery. Undergraduates, graduate students, post-docs and early career scientists presented 32 talks and 21 posters on environmental monitoring, disaster forecasting, ecosystem services, communicating environmental information, and satellite calibration/validation. Over 110 people participated in the Symposium, which included 25 NOAA employees who came to hear the presentations and see the posters. Read more.

NOAA Leading International Effort to Improve Volcanic Ash Cloud Tracking

Volcanic ash clouds are a major aviation hazard that can significantly damage aircraft and, in the worst case, cause inflight engine failure. In recognition of the importance of satellites in mitigating volcanic ash related hazards, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has created a project to identify best scientific practices and innovative techniques for transforming raw satellite measurements into environmental intelligence. During and after a major volcanic eruption, satellite-based environmental intelligence is critical for ensuring that air travel is safe and operates as efficiently as possible. The WMO project is being lead by a NOAA/NESDIS/STAR scientist and the project goals were advanced at a meeting in Madison, WI (June 29 - July 2, 2015), which was attended by over 40 internationally recognized scientists, representing nearly every continent. The international group attending the meeting identified best scientific practices and innovations. Many of the best practices and innovations are already uniquely utilized within the automated NOAA/NESDIS volcanic ash cloud tracking system developed in preparation for the next generation of NOAA's operational satellites (GOES-R and JPSS).

Second SnowPEx Workshop

Attendees of SnowPEx Workshop, Sept. 2015

Attendees of SnowPEx Workshop, Sept. 2015
(click to enlarge)

The 2nd International Satellite Snow Products Intercomparison Workshop was held in Boulder, Colorado, 14-16 September 2015. The objective of the "SnowPEx" project is the intercomparison and validation of hemispheric and global satellite snow products for estimating temporal trends of the seasonal snow cover and assessing their accuracy. In the 1st International Satellite Snow Products Intercomparison Workshop, held at NOAA, Maryland, in July 2014, the community discussed and agreed on methods and protocols for the intercomparison of products and their validation using reference data sets from various environments and surface types around the world. Jeff Key attended the 2nd SnowPEx workshop and spoke on the importance of intercomparison projects to GCW. More information.

Space Science and Engineering Center 50th Anniversary

Charles Stearns (left) and Verner Suomi with the Vanguard satellite that carried his early heat balance experiment in 1959. The launch was unsuccessful. Credit: University of Wisconsin Archives

Charles Stearns (left) and Verner Suomi with the Vanguard satellite that carried his early heat balance experiment in 1959. The launch was unsuccessful. Credit: University of Wisconsin Archives
(click to enlarge)

The Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) celebrated its first half-century of research, discovery, and innovation on September 10, 2015. The UW Board of Regents officially established SSEC on August 20, 1965 with Verner E. Suomi as its first director. With the field of satellite meteorology beginning to emerge, the university's support allowed SSEC to play a significant role in ushering in a new scientific era. Suomi's contributions would later earn him the title of "Father of Satellite Meteorology." In the fifty years since, SSEC scientists, engineers, and leaders have grown an organization with an international reputation for excellence. The 50th Anniversary program featured stories and reminiscences of the people, events, and scientific strides that are central to our past. More information is available at http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/50th/.

 
image: tag cloud of research-related words

Carr, N., Kirstetter, P. E., Hong, Y., Gourley, J. J., Schwaller, M., Petersen, W., Wang, N.-Y., Ferraro, R. R., & Xue, X. (2015). The Influence of Surface and Precipitation Characteristics on TRMM Microwave Imager Rainfall Retrieval Uncertainty. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 16(4), 1596-1614. DOI: 10.1175/jhm-d-14-0194.1

Ferraro, R., Beauchamp, J., Cecil, D., & Heymsfield, G. (2015). A Prototype Hail Detection Algorithm and Hail Climatology Developed with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). Atmospheric Research, 163, 24-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.08.010

Foster, M., Ackerman, S. A., Heidinger, A. K., & Maddux, B. C. (2015). Cloudiness [in "State of the Climate in 2014"]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(7), ES24-ES26. DOI: 10.1175/2015BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

Glenn, E., Comarazamy, D., González, J. E., & Smith, T. (2015). Detection of Recent Regional Sea Surface Temperature Warming in the Caribbean and Surrounding Region. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(16), 6785-6792. DOI: 10.1002/2015GL065002

Goni, G. J., Knaff, J. A., & Lin, I.-I. (2015). Tropical Cyclone Heat Potential [in "State of the Climate in 2014"]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(7), ES121-ES122. DOI: 10.1175/2015BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

Heidinger, A. K., Li, Y., Baum, B. A., Holz, R. E., Platnick, S., & Yang, P. (2015). Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth under Day and Night Conditions from MODIS Collection 6 Cloud Property Data. Remote Sensing, 7(6), 7257-7271. DOI: 10.3390/rs70607257

Kalluri, S., Gundy, J., Haman, B., Paullin, A., Van Rompay, P., Vititoe, D., and Weiner, A. (2015). A High Performance Remote Sensing Product Generation System Based on a Service Oriented Architecture for the Next Generation of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites. Remote Sensing, 7, 10385-10399. DOI: 10.3390/rs70810385

Karnauskas, K. B., Jenouvrier, S., Brown, C. W., & Murtugudde, R. (2015). Strong Sea Surface Cooling in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific and Implications for Galapagos Penguin Conservation. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(15), 6432-6437. DOI: 10.1002/2015gl064456

Knaff, J. A., & Sampson, C. R. (2015). After a Decade Are Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Gale Force Wind Radii Forecasts Now Skillful? Weather and Forecasting, 30(3), 702-709. DOI: 10.1175/waf-d-14-00149.1

Langford, A. O., Pierce, R. B., & Schultz, P. J. (2015). Stratospheric Intrusions, the Santa Ana Winds, and Wildland Fires in Southern California. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(14), 6091-6097. DOI: 10.1002/2015gl064964

Longmore, S., Miller, S., Bikos, D., Lindsey, D., Szoke, E., Molenar, D., Hillger, D., Brummer, R., & Knaff, J. (2015). An Automated Mobile Phone Photo Relay and Display Concept Applicable to Operational Severe Weather Monitoring. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 32(7), 1356-1363. DOI: 10.1175/jtech-d-14-00230.1

Pavolonis, M. J., Sieglaff, J., & Cintineo, J. (2015). Spectrally Enhanced Cloud Objects (SECO): A Generalized Framework for Automated Detection of Volcanic Ash and Dust Clouds Using Passive Satellite Measurements: 1. Multispectral Analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120(15), 7813-7841. DOI: 10.1002/2014jd022968

Pavolonis, M. J., Sieglaff, J., & Cintineo, J. (2015). Spectrally Enhanced Cloud Objects: Generalized Framework for Automated Detection of Volcanic Ash and Dust Clouds Using Passive Satellite Measurements: 2. Cloud Object Analysis and Global Application. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120(15), 7842-7870.DOI: 10.1002/2014jd022969

Rudlosky, S. D. (2015). Evaluating ENTLN Performance Relative to TRMM/LIS. J. Operational Meteor., 3(2), 11-20. DOI: 10.15191/nwajom.2015.0302

Sun, B., Free, M., Yoo, H. L., Foster, M. J., Heidinger, A., & Karlsson, K.-G. (2015). Variability and Trends in U.S. Cloud Cover: ISCCP, PATMOS-X, and Clara-A1 Compared to Homogeneity-Adjusted Weather Observations. Journal of Climate, 28(11), 4373-4389. DOI: 10.1175/jcli-d-14-00805.1

Wang, P., Li, J., Goldberg, M. D., Schmit, T. J., Lim, A. H. N., Li, Z., Han, H., Li, J., & Ackerman, S. A. (2015). Assimilation of Thermodynamic Information from Advanced Infrared Sounders under Partially Cloudy Skies for Regional NWP. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120(11), 5469-5484. DOI: 10.1002/2014jd022976

Wang, S., Schmidt, J. A., Baidar, S., Coburn, S., Dix, B., Koenig, T. K., Apel, E., Bowdalo, D., Campos, T. L., Eloranta, E., Evans, M. J., DiGangi, J. P., Zondlo, M. A., Gao, R.-S., Haggerty, J. A., Hall, S. R., Hornbrook, R. S., Jacob, D., Morley, B., Pierce, B., Reeves, M., Romashkin, P., ter Schure, A., & Volkamer, R. (2015). Active and Widespread Halogen Chemistry in the Tropical and Subtropical Free Troposphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(30), 9281-9286. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1505142112

Xue, Y., Hu, Z., Kumar, A., Banzon, V., Smith, T. M., & Rayner, N. A. (2015). Sea Surface Temperatures [in "State of the Climate in 2014"]. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(7), ES59-ES64. DOI: 10.1175/2015BAMSStateoftheClimate.1

You, Y., Wang, N.-Y., & Ferraro, R. (2015). A Prototype Precipitation Retrieval Algorithm over Land Using Passive Microwave Observations Stratified by Surface Condition and Precipitation Vertical Structure. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 120(11), 5295-5315. DOI: 10.1002/2014jd022534

 

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